Winter 2012
Volume Four, Issue One

Service Center Spotlight

To meet our business jet customers’ support requirements, GE Aviation’s Business & General Aviation Service & Support team has been expanding our global Authorized Service Center network. These newly authorized service centers have invested in training, technical capability and specialized tooling to support your CF34 line maintenance needs. In addition, they are authorized to perform work for warranty needs and the GE Aviation OnPoint℠ program.

These third-party companies have years of experience serving the large-cabin business jet market and understand what our customers demand. Each authorized site must meet Aviation Authority and OEM requirements. They will also receive periodic audits to ensure a positive customer experience.

To date, we have added the following 8 authorized locations:

  Aero-Dienst GmbH & Co. KG
  Bombardier Business Aircraft Services
  Consolidated Turbine Support, Inc.
  Dallas Airmotive, Inc.
  Duncan Aviation, Inc.
  Jet Aviation St. Louis, Inc.
  West Star Aviation, Inc.

We continue to evaluate potential Authorized Service Centers to expand our network as the fleet expands into new regions of the world. For more information, please visit

GE Passport: The Power To Go Where You Want To Go

GE Passport is the new business jet engine under development, and it will power the Bombardier Global 7000 and Global 8000 long-range, large-cabin aircraft. Developed as an Integrated Propulsion System (IPS), GE Passport is the first propulsion system designed specifically for business and general aviation.

New engines are developed over the course of years, culminating in certification. New product development is a core business practice for GE Aviation and is an opportunity to review our learnings and best practices to create better next-generation products. Part of the New Product Introduction (NPI) process includes talking to customers to decide which key features, such as improved fuel efficiency, more payload and longer range, are most important. Throughout the process, GE leadership conducts periodic reviews with the program team to review key development elements like fuel burn, time between overhauls, cost, noise, weight, maintainability and program milestones. The rigorous NPI process is well underway for the GE Passport engine. We will provide updates in this newsletter as we meet our key milestones.

Large Cabin Advisory Council

GE Aviation recently hosted its second Large Cabin Advisory Council. About 15 CF34 and CFM56 operators and engine service center representatives, along with GE Aviation employees, attended the meeting held at GE Aviation in Cincinnati, Ohio, in September. The attendees got more insight into GE Aviation’s engines and the customer service and support strategy. GE Aviation also heard firsthand from CF34 and CFM56 engine operators about what is working and what potential improvement opportunities exist.

Based on feedback from the first Large Cabin Advisory Council last year, we made several improvements such as improved customer communication, simplified processes and our overall service center strategy. We will review this year’s feedback and implement additional improvements to ensure our customers receive the best service and support to meet their needs.

H80 Turboprop Engine Certification

Have you heard? Although this is a business jet newsletter, we still want to share the good news on our H80 turboprop engine, which received European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) certification in December. The H80 engine combines the elegant, robust design of the M601 engine with GE’s 3-D aerodynamic design techniques and advanced materials to create a more powerful, fuel-efficient, durable engine compared with the M601 engine, with no recurrent fuel nozzle inspections and no hot section inspection. The H80 will feature an extended service life of 3,600 flight-hours or 6,600 cycles between overhauls. It will provide the option of a single- or dual-acting governor, allowing customers to have flexibility in propeller selection.

The H80 engine has been selected to power multiple applications, including the Aircraft Industries L410 commuter plane, the Thrush 510G agricultural aircraft and Technoavia’s newly designed Rysachok aircraft, a twin-engine, 10-seat general aviation aircraft.

If you would like more information regarding our H80 engine and its potential applications, please contact Greg Ryan at

Did You Know Regional Training Opportunities

GE has world-class training facilities at CTEC in Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A.; AEMTC in China; and, beginning in late 2012, in Doha, Qatar. Additionally, we have the ability to bring the training to you. Each year, GE sends training instructors all over the world to perform line maintenance training, borescope inspection and other courses.

If you are interested in a training course in your area, please contact the BizJet Operations Center at +1-513-552-JETS or to inquire.

Claudia Varela
Field Service

Business Aviation Highlights Know Your FSE/CSM

We are very excited to announce our newest Field Service Engineer, Claudia Varela. Claudia will be based in Amsterdam. This is one of the many things we are doing to provide our customers with excellent business aviation service and support worldwide.

Claudia has been with GE Aviation since 2005 in various roles. She has extensive experience as a Field Service Engineer and has an overall passion for aviation.

Claudia began her career in aviation at Helicol and then Avianca Airlines in her native Colombia. She holds an MS degree in Steam and Gas Turbines from the Peoples Friendship University of Russia. Additionally, she is fluent in English, Spanish, French, Dutch and Russian.

Claudia is looking forward to working with the BizJet customers. She is beginning to build relationships and provide technical support to Challenger and other BizJet operators throughout Europe.

In her free time, Claudia enjoys cooking (and eating!), reading, traveling and movies. Claudia can be reached at

Tradeshow Spotlight

GE Aviation finished the year with a stop at NBAA 2011 in Las Vegas. The show was highly successful, with more than 26,000 people in attendance, 1,100 exhibitors and 101 aircraft displayed. The show had standing-room-only at many education sessions, a very successful charity event for Corporate Angel Network and an increase in international registration. Additionally, NBAA launched new advertisements that were very well received; they featured renowned business investor Warren Buffett focusing on the importance of face-to-face communications enabled by business aviation.

GE Aviation had good news to announce at the show, including two contracts from Gulfstream Aerospace to provide our Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) technology and service for the G650 business jet aircraft. We have developed a highly sophisticated technology with prognostics capabilities that will become the future of health management in business and general aviation. This was a very exciting announcement for our GE Aviation Systems team. Also at our booth, we featured a Microsoft Kinect next-generation experience, “Hoopla,” about our new IVHM product that many attendees enjoyed playing.

Additionally, GE and Bombardier announced that we will be offering our OnPoint Solutions Maintenance Coverage for GE Passport engines on Global 7000 and 8000 aircraft and all Challenger aircraft equipped with GE CF34 engines. OnPoint offers customers the option to purchase flexible and cost-effective engine service packages for their specific needs. For more information on OnPoint, click here.

Our final announcement was about our expanding authorized service network for our CF34 engines, with Bombardier becoming the first company to join the growing network. This allows a one-stop shop for Challenger aircraft and engine services at all Bombardier business aircraft service centers in the U.S.

NBAA 2011 concluded the business jet tradeshow season, and we have finalized our plans for 2012. Please click here for a list of where we will be in 2012. We hope to meet you in person at one of these exciting shows!

Akhtar Naqvi
Customer Support

CSM Corner —
A Support Column

Happy New Year! I hope each one of you had a great holiday season.

Do you operate your aircraft in hot and harsh environments? GE engines are designed to operate with reliability and safety; however, it is important to understand the factors affecting operation in a Harsh Environment (HE).

I have a few points that I want to highlight that can help you better understand the environmental impacts on an engine, what GE is doing to reduce the impact and what you can do to mitigate HE effects.

Drivers of Environmental Distress

The major factors that contribute to harsh environment include crushed gravel (ice, snow), dirt, construction debris, sand, Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Silica (CMAS) dust and pollution. While there is variation in the environment due to seasonal effects, periodic sand storms, airline maintenance practices, etc., different regions around the globe are known for their harsh environments. For example:


We have noticed trends of certain distresses in engines operating in HE. Most of these environmental distresses are specific to the engine models and the regions of operations. GE has made very specific improvements to address these concerns. For a list of the improvements applicable to your engines, please consult your engine manuals, your FSE or me.

Operation and Maintenance Actions to Mitigate HE Affects

You can also take actions to reduce maintenance costs related to HE:

  • Utilize engine monitoring and diagnostics programs to optimize the line maintenance actions and reduce disruptive unscheduled engine removals.
  • Perform regular water wash to restore EGT/ITT margin and “flush” components.
  • Implement preventive line maintenance procedures, such as inlet covers and fan balance.
  • Avoid FOD, reduce reverse thrust, and increase thrust derate.

We recommend GE’s OnPoint maintenance program for the best management of your engines. For additional questions, please feel free to contact me. I would love to discuss your specific situation.

For additional information, please contact the author, Akhtar Naqvi, at

Darrin Wargacki
Program Manager /
Technical Pilot

Flight Ops Spotlight

Have you ever tried to set charted N1 at high altitude and were unable to achieve desired N1 with the thrust lever advanced full travel?

The CF34-3A1* turbofan engine employs a core speed (N2) limiting feature (corrected for ambient temperature) that can result in core speed limitations under certain ambient and operating conditions. At very high altitude, with extremely cold temperatures, core speed can reach this speed limiting function of the main fuel control (MFC) and inhibit further increases in fuel flow.

This can also occur on the ground under very low ambient conditions, and is the reason that APR power may not be fully available when OAT decreases to -18°C or below at a pressure altitude less than 1,000 feet (CRJ-100/200) and below -20°C (CL-601). Per AFM procedure, APR is selected OFF on the Challenger 601/CRJ-100/200 aircraft under these ambient conditions.

Note: As always, consult your approved AFM regarding limitations.

In order to minimize the likelihood of encountering the N2 limit, airspeed should be kept as high as practical to allow ram air to assist in N1 speed development. Airspeeds of .70 mach or higher above FL300 should be sufficient to ensure charted N1 can be achieved.

Note: Do not select the ENG Speed switches OFF in an attempt to achieve charted N1 settings. Speed switches should be selected OFF only to remedy an abnormal situation, such as erratic engine operation or uncommanded accels and deccels (per the QRH). Selecting the speed switches OFF in this case will increase the ITT to levels above projected engine life cycle values, and will accelerate engine deterioration.

In summary, the most effective remedy to avoid the speed limiting condition is to keep airspeed up and remain aware of the maximum altitude available for the existing aircraft gross weight.

*The CF34-3B1 has additional margin built into the N2 core limiting schedule, and is not expected to encounter core speed limitations.

Cold weather operations

Northern hemisphere cold-weather operations are once again upon us. In this section, we’ll focus on business and general aviation (BGA) cold-weather operations. As always, Airplane Flight Manual (AFM), regulatory and, if applicable, company operations guidance, shall take precedence over the best practices presented here.

Example of unacceptable engine inlet ice accretion

The BGA community operates out of diverse airfields with wide variations of infrastructure. When winter operations hit, regardless of where you are or where you are flying to, extra vigilance is required. In addition to AFM guidance for the airframe, an enhanced pre-flight should be performed on the engine, particularly for the first flight of the day. This enhanced pre-flight includes a detailed inspection of the inlet and engine cowl surfaces to ensure all areas are free of contaminant buildup. The engine inlet must be contaminant-free prior to engine start. Inspect the engine cowl assembly as well for ice buildup. Snow or ice buildup may prevent the proper actuation of engine thrust reversers.

Typical engine ice accumulation areas

BGA operations don’t always have the infrastructure to support deicing operations at regional, municipal and private airfields. Pilots should review AFM supplements covering cold weather operations as well as the engine maintenance manual (EMM) to cover the proper procedures with FBO deice and/or contract maintenance personnel.

The only authorized method to deice a GE engine is through the use of hot air. Deicing fluid composition (particularly glycol-based fluids) and viscosity have longterm effects on engine compressor health. Deicing fluid ingestion can have a corrosive effect on the engine, degrade fan blade lubricant dampening properties and decrease engine stall margins. GE Aviation authorizes (per the EMM) the use of a low-pressure stream of heated glycol-based deicing fluid (either Type I or II) to clear snow/ice from the engine inlet before the engine is started only when hot air is not available. In this case, the optimum method to apply deicing fluid is manually, either by hand or with a low-pressure applicator.

Only the use of hot air is authorized for engine inlet deicing

When deicing fluid is used, instruct aircraft deicing personnel to avoid spraying the fluid directly into the engine gas flow path. Consider an “info to maintenance” logbook entry, or other communication method to inform maintenance personnel that the aircraft has been previously deiced. Maintenance personnel should consider an engine compressor water wash after multiple aircraft deicing procedures to recover any possible engine performance loss. GE field service engineers (FSEs) can provide guidance on the proper interval.

AFM procedures stipulate guidance for aircraft deicing procedures. Utilize normal start procedures after aircraft deicing. To prevent deicing fluid odors from entering the cabin follow AFM guidance regarding PACK bleed operations after the aircraft has been deiced. Consider longer engine warm-up times to help dissipate any ingested deicing fluids prior to turning PACKs on. Brief your passengers and cabin crew on the possibilities of odors entering the cabin following deicing procedures.

Engine inlet snow and ice buildup may not be visible during preflight. Ambient conditions with a low temperature/dew point spread can cause ice to freeze the fan to the casing, preventing rotation during start. As with normal operations, noting N1 fan rotation during engine start is not required. However, shut down the engine if there is no perceptible N1 fan rotation by the time N2 has reached a steady-state idle condition. Observe this guidance on all engines regardless of engine control type (i.e., mechanical or FADEC). FADEC systems will not abort a start due to lack of fan rotation.

U.S.-based operators (and non-U.S. operators whose regulatory agencies model the FAA FARs) define icing conditions as existing when OAT is +10°C or below with visible moisture (i.e., fog, rain, freezing rain, snow) present. EASA and other regulatory bodies differ slightly, with OAT defined as +5°C and below. During icing conditions, particularly freezing fog, ice accretion may occur on the fan while the engine is running. This buildup usually sheds off due to centrifugal forces at low power settings without any pilot action. When operating in icing conditions, monitor N1 vibe displays for abnormal indications. Periodic engine run-ups are recommended to prevent ice accretion. Run-up “dwell” times vary between aircraft installations, ambient conditions and any applicable company procedures. Consult your AFM for definitive guidance. Repeating the ice shed procedure facilitates achieving normal fan vibration. Momentary run-ups at 10-minute intervals may reduce fan ice accumulation on some installations. Remember, no engine parameter should be exceeded during the ice-shedding procedure. The goal is to shed the ice without performance degradation or distress to engine components.

Finally, during cold-weather operations or extended aircraft sits, ensure the engine inlet and exhaust covers are installed to protect against FOD, rain, sleet, or snow. Following AFM procedures, avoiding deice fluid ingestion, proper ice-shedding techniques and good airmanship during cold-weather operations ensure safe and efficient flying. Consult GE Flight Operations or your FSEs if you have either operational or maintenance related questions about cold-weather engine operations.

For additional information, please contact the author, Darrin Wargacki, at

2012 Tradeshow Calendar

February 21-23 Regional BA M&O Asia Hong Kong
March 27-29 ABACE (Asia) 2012 Shanghai, China
March 27-29 BA Challenger 600 & 800 Advisory Committee Montreal, QC, Canada
March 27-April 1 Sun N’ Fun Lakeland, FL, U.S.A.
April 3-5 MRO Americas Dallas, TX, U.S.A.
April 12 NBAA Regional Forum Van Nuys, CA, U.S.A.
April 17-19 BA M&O Montreal, QC, Canada
May 1-3 BA Global Advisory Committee Montreal, QC, Canada
May 1-3 NBAA Maintenance Management Conference Nashville, TN, U.S.A.
May 8-10 Regional Air Cargo Carriers Association Scottsdale, AZ, U.S.A.
May 14-16 EBACE (Europe) 2012 Geneva, Switzerland
June 7 NBAA Regional Forum Teterboro, NJ, U.S.A.
July 9-15 Farnborough London, U.K.
July 23-29 Oshkosh Oshkosh, WI, U.S.A.
July 27-August 12 LABACE Sao Paulo, Brazil
September 18-20* BA Challenger 600 & 800 Advisory Committee Montreal, QC, Canada
September 20 NBAA Regional Forum Seattle, WA, U.S.A.
September 24-28* BBJ Owners/Operators Conference TBD
September 25-27 Regional BA M&O Europe Berlin, Germany
October 16-18 BA Global Advisory Committee Orlando, FL, U.S.A.

* Tentative

2012 Training Schedule

All training sessions will take place in Cincinnati, OH, U.S.A.
CF34-10E Line Maintenance 1.0  February 27-29
CFM56-7 Line Maintenance 1.0   March 20-23
CF34-10E Line Maintenance 1.0   March 26-28
CFM56-7 Line Maintenance 1.0   April 10-13
CF34-10E Line Maintenance 1.0   April 16-18
CF34-3A1/3B Business Jet Line Maintenance 1.0   April 16-20
CFM56-7 Line Maintenance 1.0   April 24-27
CF34-10E Line Maintenance 1.0  May 14-16
CF34-10E Line Maintenance 1.0   June 4-6
CFM56-7 Line Maintenance 1.0   June 5-8
CFM56-7 Line Maintenance 1.0   June 19-22
CF34-10E Line Maintenance 1.0   June 25-27

To learn more about our training offerings, visit our Customer Service Training page.

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